Hip replacement surgery is a surgical procedure in which part of hip joint or all of the hip joint is replaced by prosthetic implants, called hip prosthesis. Hip replacement is performed to relieve the patient of joint immobility, joint failure, associated pain and related disability in locomotion. The aim of the procedure is improvement in hip function and pain relief. The prosthetics used to replace the joint are made up of either metal, plastic or ceramic. The prosthetic implants last for about 20 years on an average. Hip replacement is suggested in patients with complete joint failure only when other treatment options such as medicines and physiotherapy have failed.
The failure or immobility of the hip joint may be due to physical trauma or diseases. Osteoarthritis is the most common disease contributing to joint failure of hip joints. Other diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis, traumatic arthritis, protrusion acetabuli, benign and malignant bone tumours, arthritis associated with Paget’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis can also cause joint failure. Certain hip fractures can also render the hip joint immobile. The immobility of hip joint could be partial or complete depending on the severity of disease or injury.
TOTAL HIP REPLACEMENT
Also called as total hip arthryoplasty. Total hip replacement is most commonly performed to treat complete failure of hip joint. The whole hip joint is replaced in total hip replacement. It involves replacement of head of femur with prosthetic metal stem and the acetabulum part of the hip joint is replaced by prosthetic acetabulum cup made up of metal or ceramic material. It also involves removal of damaged cartilage and other tissue. The patient is kept for about one week in the hospital post surgery. The recovery period for total hip replacement is longer and involves medication along with physiotherapy.
PARTIAL HIP REPLACEMENT
It is also known as hip hemiarthroplasty. It is used to treat joint failure caused due to permanent damage in the head of femur. It is mostly used to treat disability due to hip fracture. It involves replacement of damaged part of femur head with prosthetic metal stem. Its procedure is similar to total hip replacement but it involves only half of the hip joint. It has shorter recovery period compared to total hip replacement.