Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated resulting in excessive weight gain to the extent that it may have negative effect on the health. Obesity is related with very high body weight which impairs the normal routine and life of the person. Obesity is associated with increasing the risks of various diseases and conditions namely cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, depression and certain types of cancer. The reasons for obesity and excessive body weight include a combination of excessive food intake, lack of exercise and physical activities, unhealthy life style and genetic susceptibility. Bariatric surgery is the surgical procedure performed on obese people for the purpose of weight loss. Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach either by surgical removal of a portion of the stomach or by implying permanent or temporary constrictions. Amount of food intake is directly linked with weight gain. The reduction in stomach size drastically reduces one time food intake of the person. The person feels less hungry. The person has to eat a number of times but it contributes considerably in weight loss. Lesser the food intake, lesser will be the weight gain. Long term studies have revealed that bariatric procedures have caused significant long-term loss in body weight, recovery in diabetes, improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and reduction in mortality from 40% to 23%.
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Bariatric surgery is done to reduce the size of the stomach which results in lesser food intake and assimilation ultimately causing considerable weight loss. The size of the stomach is reduced either by permanent removal of a part of stomach or by constricting parts of stomach mechanically. Based on above two approaches of bariatric surgery there are number of procedures offered by Doctorvalley for weight loss-
Sleeve Gastrectomy: Sleeve gastrectomy is a surgical procedure aiming to reduce weight by surgical removal of a large portion of the stomach following the major curve. This surgical procedure reduces the volume of stomach by 15% of its original size. The procedure involves removal of a considerable portion of part of pylorus, cardiac and fundus of the stomach along the major curve. The open edges are attached together with either surgical staples or sutures or both. This leaves the stomach shaped like a banana or a sleeve. The resultant volume of the stomach is 150 ml. It is a permanent procedure and is performed laparoscopically. Sleeve gastrectomy does not affect the normal functioning of stomach as the part containing most gastric glands are least affected. After sleeve gastrectomy, liposuction surgery is done to remove the excess adipose tissue and skin bulge out from the body. This adds in further weight loss.
Gastric Balloon: Also called intragastric balloon. A deflated balloon is laparoscopically placed in the stomach and inflated to reduce the effective gastric volume of the stomach. This gives a sense of fullness to the patient and he takes less food. Less intake of food results in weight loss. Gastric balloon can be left in stomach for 6 months and results in weight loss of 4-5 BMI in the period. It may be used separately for weight loss or prior to another bariatric surgery in order to assist the patient to reach a weight which is suitable for surgery.
SLEEVE Gastrectomy with Duodenal Switch: It is a mixed procedure. It aids in weight loss by firstly reducing food intake and secondly by blocking food absorption. The part of stomach along greater curve is resected resulting in tubulized stomach of 150ml volume. The stomach is then disconnected from the duodenum and connected to the distal part of the small intestine. The upper part of the small intestine and duodenum are reattached to the rest at about 75-100 cm from colon. This causes reduced absorption of digested food and aids in weight loss.