Pediatric cardiac surgery is performed to treat congenital heart defects in newborns, infants and children. A baby may be born with one or more congenital heart defects. These defects are needed to be corrected by surgery to ensure long term health and well being of the child. There are many types of pediatric cardiac surgeries-
- Patent Ductus Arteriosus Ligation: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the connection between the aorta and pulmonary artery remains open after birth, instead of closing as it should normally. It may result in abnormal blood flow in arteries connected to the heart. PDA can be closed with stitches or clips through surgery or by placing a small metal coil or other blocking device through a catheter based procedure.
- Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) and Ventral Septal Defect (VSD): ASD arises when there is a hole in the atrial septum between the left and right atria of the heart and VSD arises when there is whole in the ventricular septum between the left and right ventricle. These conditions cause mixing of blood oxygenated and deoxygenated blood) and arrhythmias. ASD and VSD can be corrected by closing the hole by performing an open-heart surgery or by placing “clampshell” devices on both sides of the wall through a catheter based procedure.
- Tetralogy of Fallot Repair: It is a congenital heart defect that usually includes four defects in the heart of the baby- a large VSD, pulmonary stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy and an overriding aorta. This causes deficiency of oxygen in the baby’s body and the baby appears blue. This condition is treated by open heart surgery.