Valves guard the opening of one heart chamber into another and also guard the opening of blood vessels in the heart chambers. Valves prevent backflow of blood in heart. Heart valves can become dysfunctional with age or due to congenital defects. Dysfunctional heart valves can lead to mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in heart and can cause abnormal blood circulation in body.
Heart valve replacement is an open heart surgery to remove and replace the damaged valve. The damaged heart valve is replaced with artificial heart valve or bioprosthesis. There are four procedures for heart valve replacement surgery-
- Aortic valve replacement
- Mitral valve replacement
- Tricuspid valve replacement
- Pulmonary valve replacement
Heart transplantation is a life-saving treatment intended to improve the quality of life of the recipient. Heart transplant is a surgical procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease when all other medical treatments have failed to improve the patient’s condition. In this procedure the diseased heart of the patient is removed and replaced with a functioning heart from a recently deceased donor. It is a very complex and complicated surgical procedure.
The average survival period of the patient post-transplant is 15 years. Heart transplant is seen as a life prolonging procedure not as a cure for heart diseases. Patients undergoing heart transplant are given immunosuppressant to prevent organ rejection by the body. Such patients are kept under constant medical monitoring after the surgery.
Vascular surgery is carried out to cure the diseases of vascular system, or arteries, veins and lymphatic circulation. Vascular surgery deals with diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting all parts of the vascular system except for those of brain and heart. Aortic aneurysm, carotid artery diseases, deep vein thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, peripheral arterial disease, renal & mesenteric arterial occlusive disease, vein diseases, atherosclerosis, carotid stenosis, lymphedema, mesenteric ischemia and vascular access steal syndrome are some of the major diseases of vascular system.
There are various surgical procedures under vascular surgery. These surgical procedures range from minimally-invasive catheter based procedures to open reconstructive surgery. Angiography, angioplasty, balloon embolectomy, thrombectomy, vascular bypass grafting, carotid stenting, carotid endarterectomy, vein stripping, endovenous laser treatment, atherectomy, ambulary phlebectomy and sclerotherapy are most popular surgical procedures used to treat vascular diseases.